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playwright学习心得

简介: playwright自动化框架学习心得
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注意:我这里使用虚拟环境

一、playwright官网(非常详细)

playwright官方文档(python)

image-1660994177573

二、playwright优势

使用总结:开箱即用
支持录制,脚本清晰,方便维护

1.支持同步异步俩种方式
2.不需要为每个浏览器下载driver
3.相对比selenium多了一层context
4.支持无头浏览器
5.运行脚本的时候支持打开开发者工具devtools
6.可以使用传统的定位方式,也可以使用playwright自己的方式或者自定义方式
7.比selenium启动和执行速度更快
8.selenium底层是http单项通讯,playwright是基于websocket双向通信
9.playwright是自动等待,无需做太多处理
10.灵活便捷,多页面切换,无需iframe
11.不太懂的方法或者类可以通过录制去了解使用过程
12.回放效率高,回归效率高
13.底层高可用性和稳定性,我觉得都不需要二次封装
14.支持python、java、js、ts、C# 语言

三、录制脚本

1.当我不知道有些方法的使用过程的时候,我会录制脚本查看脚本内容

from playwright.sync_api import Playwright, sync_playwright, expect


def run(playwright: Playwright) -> None:
    browser = playwright.chromium.launch(headless=False)
    context = browser.new_context()

    # Open new page
    page = context.new_page()

    # Go to https://www.gaojs.com.cn/
    page.goto("https://www.gaojs.com.cn/")

    # Click text=关于作者 >> nth=0
    page.locator("text=关于作者").first.click()
    page.wait_for_url("https://www.gaojs.com.cn/s/about")

    # Click text=图床 >> nth=0
    with page.expect_popup() as popup_info:
        page.locator("text=图床").first.click()
    page1 = popup_info.value
    page.wait_for_url("http://image.gaojs.com.cn/explore/trending")

    # Click text=探索
    page1.locator("text=探索").click()

    # Click text=最近
    page1.locator("text=最近").click()
    page1.wait_for_url("http://image.gaojs.com.cn/explore/recent")

    # Click a:has-text("Music") >> nth=0
    page.locator("a:has-text(\"Music\")").first.click()
    page.wait_for_url("https://www.gaojs.com.cn/s/music")

    # Click svg >> nth=0
    page.locator("svg").first.click()

    # Close page
    page1.close()

    # Close page
    page.close()

    # ---------------------
    context.close()
    browser.close()


with sync_playwright() as playwright:
    run(playwright)

2.点击跳转新页面(由录制脚本1内容可知道)

    # Click text=图床 >> nth=0
    with page.expect_popup() as popup_info:
        page.locator("text=图床").first.click()
    page1 = popup_info.value
    # 这里需要改一下,录制出来是page,其实是page1
    page1.wait_for_url("http://image.gaojs.com.cn/explore/trending")

    # Click text=探索
    page1.locator("text=探索").click()

四、编写demo脚本

# coding=utf-8
"""
    @Project :playwright_env 
    @File    :test.py
    @Author  :gaojs
    @Date    :2022/8/20 18:07
    @Blogs   : https://www.gaojs.com.cn
"""
from playwright.sync_api import Playwright, sync_playwright, expect
import playwright
import time


# 创建playwright对象
playwright = sync_playwright().start()
# headless:默认为true,无头模式   # devtools默认为false:开发者工具默认关闭
# 浏览器对象:, args=["--start-maximized"]最大化没生效
browser = playwright.chromium.launch(headless=False, devtools=False)
# 上下文管理器对象
context = browser.new_context(viewport={'width': 1920, 'height': 1080})

# 页面对象
page1 = context.new_page()

page1.set_default_navigation_timeout(20000)

# 打开浏览器
page1.goto('https://www.gaojs.com.cn')
# 重新加载
page1.reload()
# 等待页面某个元素出现
page1.wait_for_selector('//*[@id="Joe"]/header/div[1]/div/nav/a[7]')

# page1.locator().click()

# Click text=图床 >> nth=0
with page1.expect_popup() as popup_info:
    page1.locator("text=图床").first.click()
page2 = popup_info.value
page2.wait_for_url("http://image.gaojs.com.cn/explore/trending")

# Click text=探索
page2.locator("text=探索").click()
# d等待页面右上角搜索按钮出现
page2.click("text=最近")
time.sleep(5)


# Close page
page1.close()
# Close page
page2.close()
# ---------------------
context.close()
browser.close()

五、录制案例(回放稍作调试即可)

1.自动发送博客

from playwright.sync_api import Playwright, sync_playwright, expect


def run(playwright: Playwright) -> None:
    browser = playwright.chromium.launch(headless=False)
    context = browser.new_context()

    # Open new page
    page = context.new_page()

    # Go to https://www.gaojs.com.cn/admin/index.html
    page.goto("https://www.gaojs.com.cn/admin/index.html")

    # Go to https://www.gaojs.com.cn/admin/index.html#/
    page.goto("https://www.gaojs.com.cn/admin/index.html#/")

    # Go to https://www.gaojs.com.cn/admin/index.html#/login?redirect=%2Fdashboard
    page.goto("https://www.gaojs.com.cn/admin/index.html#/login?redirect=%2Fdashboard")

    # Click [placeholder="用户名\/邮箱"]
    page.locator("[placeholder=\"用户名\\/邮箱\"]").click()

    # Fill [placeholder="用户名\/邮箱"]
    page.locator("[placeholder=\"用户名\\/邮箱\"]").fill("xxxxxxxx")

    # Press Tab
    page.locator("[placeholder=\"用户名\\/邮箱\"]").press("Tab")

    # Press CapsLock
    page.locator("[placeholder=\"密码\"]").press("CapsLock")

    # Fill [placeholder="密码"]
    page.locator("[placeholder=\"密码\"]").fill("B")

    # Press CapsLock
    page.locator("[placeholder=\"密码\"]").press("CapsLock")

    # Fill [placeholder="密码"]
    page.locator("[placeholder=\"密码\"]").fill("xxxxxxxxxxx")

    # Click button:has-text("登 录")
    page.locator("button:has-text(\"登 录\")").click()
    page.wait_for_url("https://www.gaojs.com.cn/admin/index.html#/dashboard")

    # Click text=速记 发 布 >> textarea
    page.locator("text=速记 发 布 >> textarea").click()

    # Fill text=速记 发 布 >> textarea
    page.locator("text=速记 发 布 >> textarea").fill("playwright自动化进阶学习,微软新一代神器!!!")

    # Click button:has-text("发 布")
    page.locator("button:has-text(\"发 布\")").click()

    # Click ul[role="menu"] div:has-text("文章")
    page.locator("ul[role=\"menu\"] div:has-text(\"文章\")").click()

    # Click a:has-text("所有文章")
    page.locator("a:has-text(\"所有文章\")").click()
    page.wait_for_url("https://www.gaojs.com.cn/admin/index.html#/posts/list?page=0&size=10&statuses=PUBLISHED&statuses=DRAFT&statuses=INTIMATE")

    # Click span:nth-child(4)
    page.locator("span:nth-child(4)").click()
    # Click a:has-text("个人资料")
    page.locator("a:has-text(\"个人资料\")").click()
    page.wait_for_url("https://www.gaojs.com.cn/admin/index.html#/user/profile")

    # Click div:has-text("系统") >> nth=2
    page.locator("div:has-text(\"系统\")").nth(2).click()

    # Click a:has-text("博客设置")
    page.locator("a:has-text(\"博客设置\")").click()
    page.wait_for_url("https://www.gaojs.com.cn/admin/index.html#/system/options")

    # Click a:has-text("仪表盘")
    page.locator("a:has-text(\"仪表盘\")").click()
    page.wait_for_url("https://www.gaojs.com.cn/admin/index.html#/dashboard")

    # Click span:nth-child(4)
    page.locator("span:nth-child(4)").click()

    # Click text=退出登录
    page.locator("text=退出登录").click()

    # Click button:has-text("确 定")
    page.locator("button:has-text(\"确 定\")").click()
    page.wait_for_url("https://www.gaojs.com.cn/admin/index.html#/login?redirect=%2Fdashboard")

    # Close page
    page.close()

    # ---------------------
    context.close()
    browser.close()


with sync_playwright() as playwright:
    run(playwright)

image-1660999546286

2.网易云音乐签到

import time

from playwright.sync_api import Playwright, sync_playwright, expect


def run(playwright: Playwright) -> None:
    browser = playwright.chromium.launch(headless=False)
    context = browser.new_context(viewport={'width': 1920, 'height': 1080})

    # Open new page
    page = context.new_page()

    # Go to https://music.163.com/
    page.goto("https://music.163.com/")

    # Click text=用户登录
    page.frame_locator("iframe[name=\"contentFrame\"]").locator("text=用户登录").click()

    # Click text=选择其他登录模式
    page.locator("text=选择其他登录模式").click()

    # Check input[type="checkbox"]
    page.locator("input[type=\"checkbox\"]").check()

    # Click text=QQ登录
    with page.expect_popup() as popup_info:
        page.locator("text=QQ登录").click()
    page1 = popup_info.value

    # Click #img_out_1170527913
    page1.frame_locator("iframe[name=\"ptlogin_iframe\"]").locator("#img_out_1170527913").click()
    # 因为token一直在变,所有后面内容使用*代替
    page1.wait_for_url(f"https://music.163.com/back/sns?key=*")

    # Close page
    page1.close()

    # Click text=我的音乐
    page.locator("text=我的音乐").click()
    page.wait_for_url("https://music.163.com/#/my/m/music/playlist?id=152392364")

    time.sleep(3)
    # Click a:has-text("播放")
    page.frame_locator("iframe[name=\"contentFrame\"]").locator("a:has-text(\"播放\")").click()
    time.sleep(10)

    # Click text=网易云音乐
    page.locator("text=网易云音乐").click()
    page.wait_for_url("https://music.163.com/#")

    # Click a:has-text("签到")
    page.frame_locator("iframe[name=\"contentFrame\"]").locator('//*[@id="discover-module"]/div[2]/div[1]/div/div/div/div/a/i').click()
    time.sleep(10)
    # Close page
    page.close()

    # ---------------------
    context.close()
    browser.close()
    print('*******************************  签到完成  *******************************')


with sync_playwright() as playwright:
    run(playwright)

3.Bilibili签到

from playwright.sync_api import Playwright, sync_playwright, expect


def run(playwright: Playwright) -> None:
    browser = playwright.chromium.launch(headless=False)
    context = browser.new_context(viewport={'width': 1920, 'height': 1080})

    # Open new page
    page = context.new_page()

    # Go to https://www.bilibili.com/
    page.goto("https://www.bilibili.com/")

    # Click span:has-text("登录")
    page.locator("span:has-text(\"登录\")").click()

    # Click text=QQ登录
    with page.expect_popup() as popup_info:
        page.locator("text=QQ登录").click()
    page1 = popup_info.value

    # Click text=1170527913 懿曲折扇情
    page1.frame_locator("iframe[name=\"ptlogin_iframe\"]").locator("text=1170527913 懿曲折扇情").click()
    page1.wait_for_url("https://www.bilibili.com/")

    # Click text=创作中心
    with page1.expect_popup() as popup_info:
        page1.locator("text=创作中心").click()
    page2 = popup_info.value

    # Click #canvas-wrap img >> nth=2
    page2.locator("#canvas-wrap img").nth(2).click()

    # Click #canvas-wrap img >> nth=2
    page2.locator("#canvas-wrap img").nth(2).click()

    # Click #canvas-wrap img >> nth=2
    page2.locator("#canvas-wrap img").nth(2).click()

    # Click #canvas-wrap img >> nth=1
    page2.locator("#canvas-wrap img").nth(1).click()

    page2.hover('//*[@id="app"]/div[1]/div/div[2]/span[1]/a/img')
    # Click text=直播中心
    with page2.expect_popup() as popup_info:
        page2.locator("text=直播中心").click()
    page3 = popup_info.value

    # Click text=签到 >> nth=0
    page3.locator("text=签到").first.click()

    # Click span:has-text("22") >> nth=0
    page3.locator('//div[@class="checkin-btn t-center pointer"]').first.click()

    # Close page
    page3.close()

    # Close page
    page2.close()

    # Close page
    page1.close()

    # Close page
    page.close()

    # ---------------------
    context.close()
    browser.close()


with sync_playwright() as playwright:
    run(playwright)

六、回放高可用性

B站视频

七、自动等待Options

image-1661151038433
image-1661151050013

智能等待API:

element_handle.is_checked()
element_handle.is_disabled()
element_handle.is_editable()
element_handle.is_enabled()
element_handle.is_hidden()
element_handle.is_visible()
page.is_checked(selector, **kwargs)
page.is_disabled(selector, **kwargs)
page.is_editable(selector, **kwargs)
page.is_enabled(selector, **kwargs)
page.is_hidden(selector, **kwargs)
page.is_visible(selector, **kwargs)
locator.is_checked(**kwargs)
locator.is_disabled(**kwargs)
locator.is_editable(**kwargs)
locator.is_enabled(**kwargs)
locator.is_hidden(**kwargs)
locator.is_visible(**kwargs)

八、断言options

expect(locator).not_to_be_checked(**kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_be_disabled(**kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_be_editable(**kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_be_empty(**kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_be_enabled(**kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_be_focused(**kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_be_hidden(**kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_be_visible(**kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_contain_text(expected, **kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_have_attribute(name, value, **kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_have_class(expected, **kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_have_count(count, **kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_have_css(name, value, **kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_have_id(id, **kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_have_js_property(name, value, **kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_have_text(expected, **kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_have_value(value, **kwargs)
expect(locator).not_to_have_values(values, **kwargs)
expect(locator).to_be_checked(**kwargs)
expect(locator).to_be_disabled(**kwargs)
expect(locator).to_be_editable(**kwargs)
expect(locator).to_be_empty(**kwargs)
expect(locator).to_be_enabled(**kwargs)
expect(locator).to_be_focused(**kwargs)
expect(locator).to_be_hidden(**kwargs)
expect(locator).to_be_visible(**kwargs)
expect(locator).to_contain_text(expected, **kwargs)
expect(locator).to_have_attribute(name, value, **kwargs)
expect(locator).to_have_class(expected, **kwargs)
expect(locator).to_have_count(count, **kwargs)
expect(locator).to_have_css(name, value, **kwargs)
expect(locator).to_have_id(id, **kwargs)
expect(locator).to_have_js_property(name, value, **kwargs)
expect(locator).to_have_text(expected, **kwargs)
expect(locator).to_have_value(value, **kwargs)
expect(locator).to_have_values(values, **kwargs)
expect(page).not_to_have_title(title_or_reg_exp, **kwargs)
expect(page).not_to_have_url(url_or_reg_exp, **kwargs)
expect(page).to_have_title(title_or_reg_exp, **kwargs)
expect(page).to_have_url(url_or_reg_exp, **kwargs)
expect(api_response).not_to_be_ok()
expect(api_response).to_be_ok()

案例

    page.locator("#submit-button").click()
    expect(page.locator(".status")).to_have_text("Submitted")

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